• In the first reference, use the individual’s full name, including any middle initials according to the individual’s preference or the formality of the context. In subsequent references, use last names only.

First reference: Donald Balmer Second reference: Balmer
First reference: Jennifer Johnson Second reference: Johnson
First reference: Charles R. Ault Jr. Second reference: Ault

  • In text, do not surround Jr. or Sr. following a name with commas.

I saw Kent Swanson Sr. at the event.

  • Enclose nicknames in quotation marks. (Note: Nicknames generally should be avoided.)
  • When including a former last name in a reference, place it before the current last name and do not use parentheses. The decision to include a former last name should be based on the individual’s preference, if known, or informed by the need for clarity in a specific context.

Hillary Rodham Clinton
Elizabeth Barrett Browning