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Style Guide

This information is intended to guide you as you prepare written materials on behalf of Lewis & Clark. It addresses issues of grammar, punctuation, spelling, and usage.

The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, is our primary reference. Watzek Library maintains an institutional subscription to The Chicago Manual of Style Online, which is available to anyone with an account. For questions on the spelling or usage of words not found in Lewis & Clark’s style guide or Chicago, consult Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition.

Note: In some matters of spelling and usage, there may be more than one acceptable option. We specify particular choices here with the intention of encouraging consistency throughout Lewis & Clark’s written materials. 

To quickly search the contents of the style guide, select a tag from the list below. You can also use your browser’s Find function. 


  • a.m.

    Not AM or A.M.

  • abbreviations

    • Use only the most universal abbreviations.

     (informal second and subsequent references only; not LC or L & C)

    • See also addresses, degrees, Lewis & Clark.
  • Academic English Studies

    Use AES for second and subsequent references.

  • acronyms

    See abbreviations and business entities.

  • add/drop

    Make sure you understand the add/drop process.

  • addresses

    • Use periods with compass directions.


    • Spell out names of numbered streets through nine. Use numerals for 10 and greater.


    • Spell out Avenue, Boulevard, and Street unless space is at a premium. Exception: Terwilliger Blvd. Do not mix spelled-out addresses and abbreviated addresses within the same document.
  • advisor

    Not adviser

  • African American

    Not African-American

  • ages

    Always use figures. If ages are expressed as adjectives before a noun or as substitutes for a noun, use hyphens.

    The child is 2 years old.
    He just turned 15.
    She’s a 3-year-old child.
    The room was full of 7-year-olds.

  • all right (adv.)

    Not alright

  • alphabetization

    • Order scholarships, foundations, companies, and similar entities by the first significant word in the name.

    The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation goes under J
    Abraham Lincoln, Attorney at Law
    goes under A

    • Order individuals by surname or family name. If this name consists of more than one word, sort by the first of those words. Respect the individual’s wishes regarding what is—and what is not—considered to be that person’s last name.
  • alumna, alumnae, alumni, alumnus

    • alumna: singular, female
    • alumnae: plural, women only
    • alumni: plural, men only or men and women
    • alumnus: singular, male
    • alum: singular, male or female; appropriate in informal contexts
    • For alumni class identification, see class year and degree identification.
  • American Indian, Native American, First Nations

    See the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, 8.37 for guidance.

  • ampersand (&)

    • With few exceptions (noted here), do not use ampersands when writing on behalf of the institution. Use and instead.
    • The ampersand is part of the official name of our institution. It is not optional in the following terms:

    Lewis & Clark (the educational institution)
    Lewis & Clark College of Arts and Sciences
    Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Education and Counseling
    Lewis & Clark Law School

    • Web only: To save space, you may substitute an ampersand for and in title and navigational elements. Do not substitute the ampersand for and in sentences, however.

    College of Arts & Sciences Commencement
    A video of the College of Arts and Sciences commencement is now available online…

    • When referring to corporations and other institutions, avoid using an ampersand unless it is part of the entity’s official name.

    National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
    Oregon Health & Science University
    Schwabe, Williamson & Wyatt

  • assure

    See ensure, insure, assure.

  • bar (the legal entity)

    Avoid Bar except when used as part of a proper name.

    He was admitted to the bar last spring.
    She is president of the Oregon State Bar.

  • biochemistry/molecular biology major

    She’s thinking of becoming a biochemistry/molecular biology major.

  • Board of Alumni

    • Use board on second reference.
    • Considered singular: The Board of Alumni approves of the change.
  • board of directors

    • Do not capitalize.
    • Considered singular: The board of directors invites members to this event.
  • Board of Trustees

    • Capitalize when referring to Lewis & Clark’s Board of Trustees. Do not capitalize elsewhere.
    • Use board on second reference.
    • Considered singular: The Board of Trustees approves of the change.
  • Board of Visitors

    • Use board on second reference.
    • Considered singular: The Board of Visitors approves of the change.
  • Bon Appétit

    Include the accent if at all possible.

  • British Columbia

    • Abbreviate when used with a city name: Victoria, B.C. 
    • See also cities.
  • buildings and features

    Akin Hall
    Albany Quadrangle, Albany
    Alder Hall
    Alumni Circle
    Paul L. Boley Law Library, Boley Library, the law library
    Bookstore (the)
    Campus Safety
    Cooley House (not the Cooley House or The Cooley House)
    Copeland Hall
    Corbett Annex
    Corbett House (not the Corbett House or The Corbett House)
    Council Chamber
    Dovecote Café
    U.G. Dubach Student Lounge, Dubach Student Lounge
    East Hall
    Evans Auditorium
    Evans Music Center
    Facilities Services
    Fred W. Fields Center for the Visual Arts, Fields Center, the visual arts center
    Fields Dining Room
    Fir Acres, Fir Acres Estate
    Fir Acres Theatre, the theatre
    Fix Track
    Agnes Flanagan Chapel, the chapel
    Forest Complex
    Frank Manor House (not the Frank Manor House or The Frank Manor House)
    Ronna and Eric Hoffman Gallery of Contemporary Art, Hoffman Gallery, the gallery
    Graduate Campus (historically, South Campus)
    Diane Gregg Pavilion, Gregg Pavilion
    Griswold Stadium
    Hartzfeld Hall
    Heating and Cooling Plant
    Holmes Gardens, Edna Holmes Gardens (historically, East Terrace and Estate Gardens)
    Holmes Hall, Edna Holmes Hall (residence hall)
    C. Howard Hall (residence hall)
    John R. Howard Hall, J.R. Howard Hall
    Huston Sports Complex
    Juniper Hall
    Law Campus
    Legal Research Center
    Manzanita Hall
    Maggie’s Café and Convenience Store, Maggie’s Café, Maggie’s
    Chester E. McCarty Classrooms, McCarty
    James F. Miller Center for the Humanities, Miller Center, the humanities center
    Morgan S. Odell Alumni Gatehouse, Odell Alumni Gatehouse, Alumni Gatehouse
    Odell Hall (residence hall)
    Olin Center for Physics and Chemistry
    Outdoor Pool and Dressing Pavilion
    Pamplin Sports Center
    Platt Hall
    Ponderosa Hall
    Roberts Hall
    Rogers Hall
    Rose Garden
    Gordon H. Smith Hall, Smith Hall
    South Chapel
    South Chapel Annex
    Spruce Hall
    Stamm Dining Room
    Stewart Hall
    Tamarack (not Tamarack Hall)
    Templeton Campus Center
    Tennis Courts
    Trail Room
    Undergraduate Campus (historically, Fir Acres Campus)
    Aubrey R. Watzek Library, Watzek Library, the library
    West Hall
    Wilson Field
    Louise and Erskine Wood Sr. Hall, Wood Hall
    York Graduate Center (historically, South Campus Conference Center)
    Zehntbauer Swimming Pavilion

    Room numbering style: Room 1, Room 2, and so on

  • business entities

    • In running text, do not abbreviate Company or Companies to Co. or Cos.
    • In running text, delete Inc., Ltd., N.A., P.C., and LLP unless necessary to distinguish from a name (e.g., Helene Curtis, Inc.).
    • Do not use an ampersand (&) unless it is part of the official name.

    Schwabe, Williamson & Wyatt

    • Follow the company’s style for punctuation.

    Foster Pepper Tooze
    Johnson Renshaw & Lechman-Su

    • Follow the company’s style for initial and internal caps (e.g., PageMaker, DirecTV). Exceptions: Capitalize the initial letter(s) of any name that, according to company style, is not capitalized (e.g., Adidas, not adidas). Capitalize only the initial letter(s) of any name that, according to company style, should appear in all caps (e.g.,Visa, not VISA; Lexis-Nexis, not LEXIS-NEXIS).
  • bylaws

    Not Bylaws, by-laws, or ByLaws

  • caller ID

    Not Caller ID

  • Campus Activities Board

    Okay to abbreviate to CAB on second and subsequent references.

  • campuswide

    Not campus-wide or campus wide

  • capitalization

    • Lewis & Clark publications follow The Chicago Manual of Style recommendation to apply a “down” style, using capitals sparingly.
    • Capitalize proper nouns.

    Lewis & Clark Board of Trustees
    Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Education and Counseling
    Lewis & Clark Law School
    Templeton Campus Center

    • Do not capitalize common nouns.

    the board
    the graduate school
    the institute

    • Do not capitalize college if it is standing alone.
    • Capitalize Lewis & Clark office names.

    Office of Human Resources or Human Resources
    Student Support Services
    Campus Living
    Office of Campus Safety
    or Campus Safety

    • Capitalize prepositions or conjunctions of four or more letters in headlines and titles.

    Secrets From the Center of the World

    • When a term that would normally be capitalized as part of a proper name is used in the plural, capitalize the term.

    the Columbia and Willamette Rivers (Columbia River)
    Department of Counseling Psychology Programs (Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology Program)
    Multnomah and Clackamas Counties (Multnomah County)

    • Capitalize generic terms used in the plural before more than one proper name.

    Mounts Rainier and Hood

    • See also business entities; courses; degrees; departments; endorsements; endowed professorships; fields, majors, and minors; people (titles of); programs; works (titles of); and entries under individual terms.
  • Cascade Mountains

    Not Cascade mountains

  • century

    • Spell out if first through ninth: third century, seventh century.
    • Use numerals for 10th and greater: 13th century, 19th century.
    • Hyphenate when used as an adjective: eighth-century text, 20th-century poetry.
    • We recommend using C.E. (“of the Common Era”) and B.C.E. (“before the Common Era”) rather than A.D. (anno Domini, “in the year of the Lord”) and B.C. (“before Christ”).
  • chair

    Use instead of chairmanchairwoman, or chairperson. Exception: Use chairman of the board if this title is used by a corporation.

  • change-of-registration period

    Not change of registration period or Change-of-Registration Period

  • cities

    • In general, do not use state designations with these U.S. cities:

    Los Angeles
    New Orleans
    New York
    Oklahoma City
    Portland (Oregon)
    St. Louis
    Salt Lake City
    San Diego
    San Francisco

    • These foreign locations stand alone:

    Guatemala City
    Hong Kong
    Mexico City
    Vatican City

    • The conventions listed above do not apply to commencement programs. For those pieces, list both city and state for all U.S. addresses, and city and country for all non-U.S. addresses. (Do not list state, province, prefecture, or similar for non-U.S. addresses.)

    Minneapolis, Minnesota
    Montreal, Canada
    Tokyo, Japan

  • class

    Capitalize when used with a year: Class of 2017.

  • class year and degree identification

    • In publications referring to two or more Lewis & Clark schools, use the following model to identify alumni:

    Jane Smith BA ’01
    Joan Smith JD ’01
    Janet Smith MAT ’01

    • Do not use periods for degree abbreviations.
    • Use a space between a degree abbreviation and year.
    • Use an apostrophe (or single closing quote mark) at the beginning of the number.


    • Do not use a comma to separate a name from a Lewis & Clark degree, except when citing multiple L&C degrees.

    Sean Smith BA ’04
    Juan Smith BA ’02, MAT ’05

    • Use a comma to separate a name from a degree granted by an institution other than Lewis & Clark.

    Jeanne Smith, JD University of Virginia

    • Use the following form in lists or photo captions when identifying people who earned a certificate but not a degree at Lewis & Clark:

    Ian Smith, Educational Leadership certificate ’05

    Note: Capitalize Certificate if using headline capping style for the caption or list.

    • When referring to a certificate holder in running text, describe the certificate (rather than identifying the person with an abbreviation and year in the manner of a degree holder or degree-seeking student).

    Ian Smith, who holds a certificate in educational leadership, …

    • When identifying people in lists or photo captions who studied at Lewis & Clark but were not part of a degree or certificate program, cite the last year in which they took classes at the school. Do not use a degree abbreviation.

    Sinead Smith ’00

    • When referring to a former student in running text who was not part of a degree or certificate program, use one of the following models:

    Sinead Smith, who studied at the Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Education and Counseling from 1998 to 2000, …

    Smith completed the Standard Superintendent licensure program at Lewis & Clark in 2000.

    • Adapt the above guidelines as necessary to suit the context of a citation.
  • class year/standing (for College of Arts and Sciences)

    • first-year student
    • sophomore or second-year student
    • junior
    • senior
  • co

    In general, do not hyphenate.


  • coed

    Not co-ed

  • college

    • Do not capitalize college unless the word is used as part of the name of a school or office.

    He wants to find a college in this region.
    Did you consult the College Outdoors schedule?

    • Rather than simply writing college, consider using Lewis & Clark CollegeLewis & Clarkuswe, or institution instead.

    What interests you most about Lewis & Clark?

  • colleges/universities

    • Use the full current name of colleges and universities. When referring to a college or school within a larger institution, use the full current name of the smaller entity.

    Bard College
    Harvard University
    Yale Law School
    Oregon Health & Science University
     (not Oregon Health Sciences University
    Reed College
    University of Oregon
    University of Arizona John E. Rogers College of Law
    Willamette University

    • When referring to an institution belonging to a multicampus system, precede the location with at in all instances.

    State University of New York at Buffalo
    University of California at Berkeley
     (not University of California, Berkeley)
    University of Wisconsin at Madison (not University of Wisconsin-Madison)

  • colon

    • Avoid immediately following namely, for example, and similar expressions.
    • Do not use immediately following a verb or preposition.
    • For more guidance, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, sections 6.63–6.69.
  • comma

    • Use a comma before and or or in a series.

    red, white, and blue
    faculty, students, or parents

    • When a city-state or city-country combination appears in the body of a sentence, follow the name of the state or country with a comma.

    My house is located in Astoria, Oregon, and was built in 1911.
    She traveled to Istanbul, Turkey, by plane.

    • When listing a date in the month-day-year format in the body of a sentence, follow the year with a comma.

    Between December 1, 1999, and January 2, 2000, they attended 32 parties.

  • Cooley House

    Not the Cooley House or The Cooley House

  • Corbett House

    Not the Corbett House or The Corbett House

  • Core

    Not CORE. Capitalize when referring to Core Curriculum or Core Program.

  • couple

    Considered plural: The couple live in Beaverton.

  • course load

    Not courseload

  • courses

    Capitalize course titles. Do not italicize or enclose in quotation marks.

  • coursework

    Not course-work or course work

  • credit/no credit (CR/NC)

    She elected the credit/no credit option.

  • cross country

    Do not hyphenate in the context of the track event.

    She ran cross country this year.
    How did he do at the cross country meet?

  • cross-cultural

    Not crosscultural or cross cultural

  • cum laude, magna cum laude, summa cum laude

    See degrees with distinction.

  • dashes

    • We use two kinds of dashes in Lewis & Clark communications. They are the en dash, which is only slightly longer than the hyphen, and the em dash.

    hyphen -
    en dash –
    em dash —

    • Use the en dash to punctuate inclusive ranges of numbers, times, and dates:

    pages 9–22
    1:30–5:30 p.m.
    December 1897–March 1902

    • The em dash (often called simply the dash) is the most common dash. We sometimes use em dashes in place of parentheses, commas, or colons. 

    His friends—if you could really call them that—were quick to vanish whenever he asked for help.

    • See also em dash and en dash.
  • dates

    • Use commas to set off the year when using full dates.

    She was born on September 15, 1985, in Los Angeles.

    • Do not use commas when using only month-and-year constructions.

    Planning began in September 1995.

    • Do not use 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on with dates.

    July 21
    April 2

    • Use the year if referring to a date not in the current calendar year.

    Rory Williams and Amy Pond had a baby in December 2011.
    The Songs had a baby in January (of this year).

    • Use the following models when referring to periods of years:

    She worked from 1949 to 1961.
    He worked in 1949–50. (for an academic year)
    He worked in the 1950s. (for a decade)
    Avoid ’50s. Do not use 1950’s.

    • See also months and en dash.
  • Dean’s List

    How many sophomores made it onto the Dean’s List this semester?

  • decision making (n.), decision-making (adj.)

    Decision making, we agreed, would be a critical function of this position.
    The candidate demonstrated stellar decision-making skills.

  • degrees

    • Do not use periods with academic degree abbreviations.


    • Do not capitalize academic degrees when spelled out in general terms.

    bachelor of arts or bachelor’s degree
    master of arts
     or master’s degree
    juris doctor

    • In lists, style faculty credentials as follows:

    PhD 1966 Princeton University. MA 1962 Reed College.
    PhD 1979, MA 1972 Stanford University.
    JD 1975 Harvard Law School.

    • Reserve Dr. for those holding doctorates in medical fields only. Exception: Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr.
  • degrees with distinction (cum laude, magna cum laude, and summa cum laude)

    Set in Roman face; do not capitalize or use italics.

  • Department of Sociology and Anthropology

    But sociology/anthropology major

  • departments

    • Capitalize the formal names of academic departments.

    Department of Chemistry
    Department of Education
    Department of English

    • In informal names and descriptions of academic departments, capitalize only proper nouns. (Hint: Informal names often begin with the subject.)

    chemistry department
    education department
    English department

    • See also fields, majors, and minors and programs.
  • directions and regions

    Consult the Associated Press Stylebook and Libel Manual for guidance.

  • doctor (Dr.)

    Reserve for those holding doctorates in medical fields only. Exception: Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr.

  • dollar amounts

    Use a dollar sign followed by a numeral. Do not use .00 with dollar values.

    $250 (not $250.00)
    $5.3 million

  • dorm, dormitory

    Avoid; use residence hall.

  • e.g. (exempli gratia; for example)

    • This abbreviation should be used only in parenthetical phrases, where it is punctuated with periods and set off with a comma.

    The College of Arts and Sciences offers several majors (e.g., biology, economics, Hispanic studies).

    • Do not use etc. at the end of a phrase beginning with e.g.
  • em dash

    Use an em dash (—) to indicate an abrupt change in thought, or where a period is too strong and a comma is too weak. Do not put spaces around an em dash.

  • email

    Do not hyphenate this term. (Changed September 10, 2012.)

  • emerita, emeriti, emeritus

    • emerita: singular, female.

     professor emerita of economics

    • emeriti: plural.

    faculty emeriti

    • emeritus: singular, male.

    professor emeritus of art

    • Emerita or Emeritus immediately follows Professor in references to the titles of those who held named professorships.

    Richard L. Rohrbaugh, Paul S. Wright Professor Emeritus of Christian Studies

  • en dash

    • The en dash is longer than the hyphen and shorter than the em dash.

    hyphen -
    en dash –
    em dash —

    • When used with an inclusive range of numbers, times, or dates, the en dash signifies up to and including (or through). 

    pages 9–22
    1:30–5:30 p.m.
    December 1897–March 1902

    • Do not use an en dash in combination with from. Use to, until, or through (depending on your meaning) instead.

    They were out of the country from 1950 to 1971.
    The open house lasts from 11 a.m. until 5:30 p.m.
    Read from page 119 through page 203.

  • endorsements

    Capitalize formal names of graduate school endorsements.

    ESOL/Bilingual Education Endorsement
    Language and Literacy Program: Reading Endorsement (reading endorsement for subsequent references)
    Special Educator Endorsement

  • endowed professorships

    • Not endowed chairs.
    • Capitalize named professorships in all circumstances.
    • If space permits, use the full form of the named professorship for first mention (e.g., Edmund O. Belsheim Professor of Law rather than Belsheim Professor of Law).
    • Belsheim
      Edmund O. Belsheim Professorship in Law
      Edmund O. Belsheim Professor of Law
      Doug Newell, Edmund O. Belsheim Professor of Law
      Belsheim Professor of Law
    • Casey
      Henry J. Casey Professorship in Law
      Henry J. Casey Professor of Law
      Ed Brunet, Henry J. Casey Professor of Law
      Casey Professor of Law
    • Dubach
      U.G. Dubach Professorship in Political Science
      U.G. Dubach Professor of Political Science
      Donald G. Balmer, U.G. Dubach Professor Emeritus of Political Science
      Dubach Professor of Political Science
    • Jones
      Robert E. Jones Professorship of Advocacy and Ethics
      Robert E. Jones Professor of Advocacy and Ethics
      William Funk, Robert E. Jones Professor of Advocacy and Ethics
      Jones Professor of Advocacy and Ethics
    • Miller
      James F. Miller Professorship in the Humanities
      James F. Miller Professor of Humanities
      Nicholas D. Smith, James F. Miller Professor of Humanities
      Miller Professor of Humanities
    • Newell
      Douglas K. Newell Professorship of Teaching Excellence
      Douglas K. Newell Professor of Teaching Excellence
      Janet Steverson, Douglas K. Newell Professor of Teaching Excellence
      Newell Professor of Teaching Excellence
    • Odell
      Morgan S. Odell Professorship in the Humanities
      Morgan S. Odell Professor of Humanities
      John E. Callahan, Morgan S. Odell Professor of Humanities
      Odell Professor of Humanities
    • Pamplin—Economics
      Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professorship in Economics
      Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professor of Economics
      Arthur O’Sullivan, Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professor of Economics
      Pamplin Professor of Economics
    • Pamplin—Government
      Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professorship in Government
      Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professor of Government
      Curtis N. Johnson, Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professor of Government
      Pamplin Professor of Government
    • Pamplin—History
      Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professorship in History
      Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professor of History
      David Campion, Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Associate Professor of History
      Pamplin Professor of History
    • Pamplin—Science
      Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professorship in Science
      Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professor of Science
      Janis E. Lochner, Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Professor of Science
      Pamplin Professor of Science
    • Rogers—Music
      James W. Rogers Professorship in Music
      James W. Rogers Professor of Music
      Eleonora Maria Beck, James W. Rogers Professor of Music
      Rogers Professor of Music
    • Rogers—Education
      Mary Stuart Rogers Professorship in Education
      Mary Stuart Rogers Professor of Education
      Ruth Shagoury, Mary Stuart Rogers Professor of Education
      Rogers Professor of Education
    • Swindells
      William Swindells Sr. Professorship in the Natural Sciences
      William Swindells Sr. Professor of Natural Sciences
      Paulette F. Bierzychudek, William Swindells Sr. Professor of Natural Sciences
      Swindells Professor of Natural Sciences
    • Wood
      Erskine Wood Sr. Professorship in Law
      Erskine Wood Sr. Professor of Law
      Jennifer Johnson, Erskine Wood Sr. Professor of Law
      Wood Professor of Law
    • Wright
      Paul S. Wright Professorship in Christian Studies
      Paul S. Wright Professor of Christian Studies
      Robert A. Kugler, Paul S. Wright Professor of Christian Studies
      Wright Professor of Christian Studies
    • See also faculty scholars.
  • ensure, insure, assure

    • Use ensure to mean guarantee or make certain: Steps were taken to ensure the document’s accuracy.
    • Use insure for references to the characteristics of insurance: The policy will insure your home.
    • Use assure to give confidence or to inform positively: She assured him that the decision was a wise one.
  • entitled, titled

    • Use entitled to mean furnished with proper grounds for seeking or claiming something: He felt entitled to refreshments more substantial than “foreign beer and dry cheese.”
    • Use titled to mean provided with a title, or designated or called by a title: She has tentatively titled her next book Where We Go From Here.
  • ESOL

    Not ESL.

    He teaches English to speakers of other languages.
    She is pursuing concentrations in social studies and English for speakers of other languages.

  • etc. (et cetera)

    Except in lists, tables, and parenthetical series, substitute and so on or and so forth.

  • events

    Capitalize as shown here. Do not use quotation marks or italics.

    Environmental Affairs Symposium
    Gender Studies Symposium
    International Affairs Symposium
    New Student Orientation (Use NSO for second and subsequent appearances.)
    Ray Warren Symposium on Race and Ethnic Studies

  • extension

    In running text, spell out when referring to a phone number; separate with commas.

    Call 800-753-9292, extension 1, for details.

  • faculty

    Usually considered plural: The faculty attend these events.

  • faculty scholars

    • Bain
      Jeffrey Bain Faculty Scholar
      Jeffrey Bain Faculty Scholar and Professor of Law Michael Blumm
      Jeffrey Bain Faculty Scholar and Professor of Law Susan Mandiberg
      Michael Blumm, Jeffrey Bain Faculty Scholar and professor of law
      Susan Mandiberg, Jeffrey Bain Faculty Scholar and professor of law
    • Kitagawa and Johnson-Laird
      Kay Kitagawa and Andy Johnson-Laird Intellectual Property Faculty Scholar
      Kay Kitagawa and Andy Johnson-Laird Intellectual Property Faculty Scholar and Professor of Law Lydia Loren
      Lydia Loren, Kay Kitagawa and Andy Johnson-Laird Intellectual Property Faculty Scholar and professor of law
    • Newell
      Douglas K. Newell Faculty Scholar
      Douglas K. Newell Faculty Scholar and Professor of Law John Bogdanski
      John Bogdanski, Douglas K. Newell Faculty Scholar and professor of law
  • fax

    Not Fax or FAX

  • fellow

    Lowercase fellow in references to those holding named fellowships.

    Pamplin fellow

  • Fellowship

    Capitalize Fellowship in references in named fellowships.

    Pamplin Fellowship

  • fields, majors, and minors

    Lowercase the names of academic fields, majors, and minors, except proper nouns.

    East Asian studies
    international affairs

  • fieldwork

    Not field work or field-work

  • First Nations, American Indian, Native American

    See the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, 8.41 (page 325) for guidance.

  • first-come, first-served

    They will be seated on a first-come, first-served basis.

  • first-year student

    Avoid freshman or freshmen. See class year/standing.

  • Founders Day

    Not Founder’s Day or Founders’ Day

  • Frank Manor House

    Not the Frank Manor House or The Frank Manor House

  • fundraiser (n.), fundraising (adj., n.)

    Tell me, how does he do as a fundraiser?
    We will announce our fundraising objective later this month.

  • Gender Studies Symposium

    See also events.

  • General Education

    Capitalize when referring to the College of Arts and Sciences’ General Education requirements.

  • grade point average

    Use GPA on second reference.

  • grades

    Use letter grade with no quotation marks. 

    She received an A in the course.
    There is a W on his transcript.
    She earned three Bs and two Cs.

  • Graduate School of Education and Counseling

    Also the graduate school

  • hashtag

    Not hash tag or Hashtag

  • Hawai‘i

    Take note of the accent.

  • health care

    Not healthcare or health-care

  • Health Center

    See Student Health Services.

  • high school (n., adj.)

    From which high school did you graduate?
    High school students were bunched tightly on the pathway, trying to catch the voice of their guide.

  • homework

    Not home work or home-work

  • Honorable, the Honorable

    See people (titles of).

  • honors, Latin

    See degrees with distinction.

  • i.e. (id est; that is)

    Used for listing the specific case(s) referred to in the preceding material. Should be punctuated with periods and set off with a comma.

    Please state your response (i.e., yes or no).

  • Indian country

    Not Indian Country

  • initials

    Do not separate with a space.

    R.B. Pamplin Corporation
  • insure

    See ensure, insure, assure.

  • International Affairs Symposium

    See also events.

  • internet

    Not the uppercase Internet

  • Judge, Justice

    See people (titles of).

  • junior (Jr.)

    See people (names of).

  • kickoff (n.), kick-off (adj.), kick off (v.)

    • kickoff (n.): Kickoff is scheduled for 4:15 p.m., rain or shine.
    • kick-off (adj.): We’re in the process of planning the kick-off event.
    • kick off (v.): Do you want to kick off this meeting by sharing highlights from last week’s symposium?
  • KLC

    Lewis & Clark’s campus radio station

  • law school

    See Lewis & Clark Law School

  • lay, lie

    Lay means “to put” or “to place.” It requires an object to complete its meaning. Principal forms are lay, laid, laid, laying.

    Please lay the boxes there. I laid the message on the table.

    Lie means “to recline, rest, or stay” or “to take a position of rest.” It refers to a person or thing as either assuming or being in a reclining position. This verb cannot take an object. Principal forms are lie, lay, lain, lying.

    He’s been ill and lies in bed all day. The mail is lying on the secretary’s desk.

    Hint: To determine whether to use lie or lay in a sentence, substitute the word place, placed, or placing (as appropriate) for the word in question. If the substitute fits, the corresponding form of lay is correct; if it doesn’t, use the appropriate form of lie.

  • legal cases

    The names of legal cases (plaintiff and defendant) are usually italicized.

    Miranda v. Arizona
    Green v. Department of Public Welfare

  • Lewis & Clark College Alumni Association

    Use alumni association on second and subsequent references.

  • Lewis & Clark Law School

    • Use the full name on first reference. On subsequent references or in the context of all three schools, use the law school.
    • Although Northwestern School of Law of Lewis & Clark College is the legal and historical name of the law school, its use is largely restricted to diplomas and stationery.
  • Lewis & Clark Sports Hall of Fame

    For second and subsequent references, use hall of fame.

  • Lewis & Clark/Lewis & Clark College

    • Lewis & Clark applies to the entire institution. Lewis & Clark College generally refers to the College of Arts and Sciences only.
    • Lewis & Clark on subsequent references or L&C (for informal references only). The ampersand (&) is not optional.
    • For international audiences, avoid College, even when referring specifically to the College of Arts and Sciences. The word may mean high school to these audiences.
    • See also abbreviations, College/college. 
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Okay to use the expedition after first appearance. 

  • Living-Learning Communities

    But Living-Learning initiative

  • ly rule

    If the first of two consecutive modifiers ends in -ly, do not follow it with a hyphen.

     It’s a newly created program.

  • maiden names

    See people (names of).

  • majors

    See fields, majors, and minors.

  • MAX

    Stands for Metropolitan Area Express, the regional light-rail system.

  • Metro

    Regional government agency; not METRO.

  • mid- to late

    The report will arrive in mid- to late November.

  • money

    See dollar amounts.
  • months

    Spell out months in text matter: We’re heading overseas November 15.

  • Mount Hood

    Spell out Mount if space permits.

  • multicultural

    Not multi cultural or multi-cultural.

  • musical ensembles (at Lewis & Clark)

    • African Marimba Ensemble
    • College Choir
    • Friends of Rain
    • Jazz Ensemble
    • Lewis & Clark Cappella Nova Choir, Cappella Nova
    • Lewis & Clark College Orchestra, orchestra
    • Lewis & Clark College Pep Band
    • Lewis & Clark Community Chorale
    • Lewis & Clark Gamelan, The Venerable Showers of Beauty
    • Lewis & Clark Percussion Ensemble
    • Lewis & Clark Women’s Chorus
    • musical theatre
    • West African Rhythms
    • Wind Symphony (not Wind Ensemble)
  • Native American/American Indian/First Nations

    See the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, 8.41 (page 325) for guidance.

  • Neely scholar, Neely Scholarship

    She was named a Neely scholar.
    We awarded the Neely Scholarship to him.

  • New Student Orientation

    See also events.

  • New Student Trips

    Capitalize this term when it is used in reference to the College Outdoors program for incoming students.

  • nicknames

    See names.

  • noncredit

    Not non-credit

  • none

    If the object of the preposition after none is singular, use a singular verb. Likewise, if the object of the preposition after the verb is plural, use a plural verb. 

    None of the day was wasted.
    None of us were alert.

  • nonprofit (n., adj.)

    Also not-for-profit

  • Northwestern School of Law of Lewis & Clark College

    See Lewis & Clark Law School.

  • numerals

    • Spell out zero through nine. Use Arabic numerals for 10 and greater. If more than one numeral appears in the same sentence—and all of them refer to the same category of item—do not use numerals for some and spell out others. If according to the rule you must use numerals for one of the items in a given category, then for consistency’s sake use numerals for them all.

    He had four books on his desk.
    She planted 12 bulbs in her garden.
    There were 5 students in the morning session and 12 students in the afternoon.

    • Use a comma with numerals of 1,000 and above (except dates).


    • Use numerals when referring to academic credit.

    The student earned 2.5 hours of credit.

    • Use numerals when referring to a page number.

    The passage begins on page 5.

    • See also ages, percentages.
  • off-campus, on-campus

    Hyphenate these terms only when they are used as compound modifiers.

    What are my on-campus housing options?
    The department will provide transportation for students involved in off-campus research.
    Can my parrot live on campus?
    This party will be off campus.


  • offline

    Not off-line

  • okay

    Not OK

  • online

    Not on-line

  • op-ed

    We submitted an op-ed to the paper.
    If they have room, they might print it on the op-ed page, I suppose.

  • Oregon Health & Science University

    • Note the use of the ampersand (&).
    • OHSU is acceptable for second and subsequent appearances.
  • Oregon Teacher Standards and Practices Commission

    OTSPC is acceptable for second and subsequent references.

  • Oregon Zoo

    Not Washington Park Zoo

  • Overseas Study Program

    Not overseas trip

  • p.m.

    Not PM or P.M.

  • Pamplin fellow

    Do not capitalize fellow in this context.

  • Pamplin professor

    See endowed professorships.

  • Pamplin Society

    Dr. Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Society of Fellows, Pamplin Society, the society

  • Patent law depository

    Use U.S. Patent and Trademark Depository.

  • people (names of)

    • In the first reference, use the individual’s full name, including any middle initials according to the individual’s preference or the formality of the context. In subsequent references, use last names only.

    First reference: Donald Balmer Second reference: Balmer
    First reference: Jennifer Johnson Second reference: Johnson
    First reference: Charles R. Ault Jr. Second reference: Ault

    • In text, do not surround Jr. or Sr. following a name with commas.

    I saw Kent Swanson Sr. at the event.

    • Enclose nicknames in quotation marks. (Note: Nicknames generally should be avoided.)
    • When including a former last name in a reference, place it before the current last name and do not use parentheses. The decision to include a former last name should be based on the individual’s preference, if known, or informed by the need for clarity in a specific context.

    Hillary Rodham Clinton
    Elizabeth Barrett Browning

  • people (titles of)

    • Capitalize formal titles before a name or names.
    Vice President and Provost Jane Monnig Atkinson
    Dean Robert Klonoff
    Associate Professor Alejandra Favela
    • Do not capitalize formal titles after a name or names. Exception: Always capitalize the terms College of Arts and Sciences, Graduate School of Education and Counseling, and Lewis & Clark Law School.
    Barry Glassner, president
    Diana Leonard, assistant professor of psychology
    Brian White, director of international students and scholars
    Judy Finch, registrar of the College of Arts and Sciences
    Tim O’Dwyer, director of campus safety
    • Do not capitalize titles that are standing alone.
    the vice president
    the dean
    • In addresses, captions, and lists, style civil, religious, and military titles as follows:
    U.S. Rep. (not CongressmanEarl Blumenauer B.A. ’70, J.D. ’76
    Sen. Gordon Smith
    Rev. Paul Wright
    Major General George Smith
    Hon. Edward Jones
    • In running text, style civil, religious, and military titles as follows:
    U.S. Representative Earl Blumenauer B.A. ’70, J.D. ’76
    Senator Gordon Smith
    the Reverend Paul Wright
    Major General George Smith
    Multnomah County Circuit Court Judge Edward Jones
     (Include court affiliation, if known.)
    U.S. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg
    • Drop titles and first names on second and subsequent references.
    • See also endowed professorships.
  • percentages

    In text, spell out percent; use the percent sign (%) in tables and graphics.

  • phone numbers

    Use hyphens; do not use parentheses or periods. Omit the 1 in all long-distance numbers, including toll-free numbers.


  • possessives

    • To make the possessive form of most singular nouns, add an apostrophe and an s.
    the dog’s bone
    that house’s windows
    a child’s game
    the moss’s texture
    • Exception: Do not add an s when making the possessive form of proper nouns that end in s, whether singular or plural.
    Strauss’ Vienna (but Mahler’s Vienna)
    Dickens’ writing
    the Joneses’ cabin
    • To make the possessive form of most plural nouns, add an apostrophe.

    I don’t think much of those candidates’ chances.

  • postbaccalaureate

    Not post-baccalaureate or Postbaccalaureate

  • pre

    In general, do not hyphenate. Exceptions: pre-dental, pre-law, pre-med, pre-vet.


  • programs

    • Capitalize the formal names of programs.

    Language and Literacy Program
    East Asian Studies
    Environmental and Natural Resources Law Program

    • Do not capitalize generic names and descriptions of programs.

    education program
    science program

    • See also capitalization.
  • punctuation

    See colon, comma, dash, spaces.

  • ratios

    Use figures and a hyphen.

    a ratio of 2-to-1
    a 2-1 ratio

  • Ray Warren Symposium on Race and Ethnic Studies

    See also events.

  • re

    In general, do not hyphenate.

    reedit, reunify, reestablish

  • Reserve Officers Training Corps

    See ROTC.

  • residence hall

    Not dormitory, dorm, or residence house
  • resume

    Not résumé or resumé

  • Rogers

    • James W. Rogers Professorship in Music
    • James W. Rogers Professor of Music, Rogers Professor of Music
    • John S. Rogers Science Program
    • Mary Stuart Rogers Professorship in Education
    • Mary Stuart Rogers Professor of Education, Rogers Professor of Education
    • Mary Stuart Rogers scholar (education)
    • Rogers Hall
    • Rogers scholar (music)
    • See also endowed professorships.
  • room numbers

    Capitalize, use Arabic numerals: Room 4, Room 232, Miller 105.

  • ROTC

    Preferred to Reserve Officers Training Corps

  • roundabout

    In references to the Lewis & Clark location, avoid traffic circle.

  • RSVP

    Avoid; consider substituting Please reply. Not R.S.V.P.

  • scholar

    • Do not capitalize scholar in references to those holding named scholarships.

    Dean’s scholar
    Neely scholar

    Rhodes scholar
    Rogers scholar

    • See also faculty scholars.
  • Scholarship

    Capitalize Scholarship in references to named scholarships:

    Neely Scholarship
    Dean’s Scholarship
    Rogers Scholarship
    Rhodes Scholarship
  • seasons

    Lowercase the names of seasons:

    fall, winter, spring, summer
    fall semester, spring semester
    winter 2006

  • senior (Sr.)

    See people (names of).

  • senior citizens (usually those age 65 and over)

    Avoid seniors, which may cause confusion with fourth-year students in some contexts.

  • sexist terms

    • Avoid words that are commonly perceived as sexist. For example, use chair, if possible, rather than chairman or chairwoman.
    • Avoid substituting person for man:

    chair (not chairperson)
    News anchor (not anchorperson)

    • Avoid awkward constructions using he/she, his/her, s/he. If this construction cannot be avoided, use he or she.
    • See also chair.
  • Social Security

    Capitalize in all references to the government program.

    His Social Security number is included on the form. 

  • sociology/anthropology major

    But Department of Sociology and Anthropology

  • spaces

    Use a single character space–not two–after periods and other end punctuation, commas, and colons. This holds for text of any kind, and in any setting: letters, webpages, manuscripts, and so on.

  • Sports Hall of Fame

    See Lewis & Clark Sports Hall of Fame.

  • staff

    Usually considered plural: The staff have reviewed the president’s document.

  • states and countries

    • Spell out state names; do not use postal abbreviations in text matter. Set off states or countries with commas. In most cases, it is not necessary to list state, province, prefecture, or similar for non-U.S. addresses in text matter.
    Fresno, California
    Hiroshima, Japan
    He was born in Milwaukie, Oregon, and raised in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
    They moved from Edinburgh to Nairobi.
    • For commencement programs, list both city and state for all U.S. addresses, and city and country for all non-U.S. addresses.
    • For other print materials, some major cities do not require state or country identification; see also cities.
  • Student Health Service

    Not Student Health Services

  • student-athlete

    When referring to a member of the Lewis & Clark community, avoid the unhyphenated form student athlete.

  • summer school

    Do not capitalize.

  • Summer Session

    As in Lewis & Clark’s Summer Session; lowercase elsewhere.

  • that, which

    These words are not interchangeable in American English.

    Which is used before a “nonessential” clause: The books, which are rare, are stored in a special room. (All of the books in question are stored in a special room. If you were to remove the words which are rare, the meaning of the sentence would not change.) A nonessential clause must be set off with commas.

    That is used to introduce an “essential” clause: The books that are rare are stored in a special room. (Only the rare books are stored in a special room. Some of the books in question are not rare and are stored elsewhere. If you were to remove the words that are rare, the meaning of the sentence would change.) An essential clause must not be set off from the rest of the sentence by commas.

    Hint: When in doubt, try the sentence both ways. If that fits comfortably, use it.

  • theatre, theater

    • Use theatre for live performances and the buildings dedicated to them.

    We need to get to the theatre well before curtain time.

    • Use theatre for the discipline.

    She might minor in theatre or economics.

    • Use theater for movies and the buildings dedicated to showing them.

    We saw a film at that great independent theater in Northwest.

  • Third Culture Kids

    TCKs is acceptable for subsequent references.

  • time of day

    • Use a colon to separate hour from minutes. The colon and minutes are not necessary for even-hour times.

    3:30 p.m.
    11 a.m. (not 11:00 or 11:00 a.m.)

    • In listings, use the following model to specify a time range:

    5:30–8:30 p.m. (note the en dash)
    10 a.m.–1:30 p.m. (note the en dash)

    •  In text, use the following model to specify a time range:

    from 5:30 to 8:30 p.m. (not from 5:30–8:30 p.m.)
    from 10 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. (not from 10 a.m.–1:30 p.m.)

    • Use noon and midnight, not 12 noon or 12 a.m., or 12 midnight or 12 p.m. In formal invitations, you may elect to use the following model:

    eight o’clock

    • See also en dash.
  • titles of people

    See people (titles of).

  • titles of works

    See works (titles of).

  • track and field

    Not track & field

  • trademarks

    Make a reasonable effort to capitalize trademarked names. In general, you need not use the symbols ® and ™.

    Coca-Cola (but cola drink)
    Pyrex dishes

  • TriMet

    Not Tri-Met. The regional public transit system.

  • Tryon Creek State Natural Area/Tryon Creek State Park

    Even the state government has trouble figuring out which name is correct, with different departments applying different forms. Tryon Creek State Natural Area is the form preferred by the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. Their preferred short form is Tryon Creek

  • Ultimate Frisbee

    During midterms, you can find students playing spontaneous games of Ultimate Frisbee.

  • United Nations (n.); U.N. (adj.)

    She will speak at an assembly of the United Nations.
    He supported the naming of a new U.N. committee to address the issue.

  • United States (n.); U.S. (adj.)

    While traveling in the United States, she developed an idea for her next novel.
    His U.S. publisher, on the other hand, expected him to pay his tour expenses.

  • upperclass (adj., education), upper-class (adj., socioeconomics)

    That housing is intended for upperclass students, so it’s unlikely you will find any first-years living there.
    Judging from the home values, I would guess this to be an upper-class neighborhood.

  • versus

    Spell out in running text; may be abbreviated (vs.) in charts or other graphics where space is at a premium. See also legal cases.

  • vice president

    Do not capitalize unless the term is functioning as part of a name.

    Jane Atkinson, vice president and provost, plans to attend.
    Vice President and Provost Jane Atkinson introduced the speaker.

  • wait list (n.), wait-list (v.)

    Are you on the wait list?
    Have they been wait-listed?

  • Washington Park Zoo

    See Oregon Zoo.

  • Web

    Not web. Avoid World Wide Web.

  • webpage

    Not web page, Web page, or web-page

  • website

    In website addresses (URLs), avoid http://.

  • which

    See that, which.

  • work-study (adj., noun)

    Not workstudy, work study, or Work-Study

  • workers’ compensation

    Not workers compensation or worker’s compensation

  • works (titles of)

    • Use italics with the following:

    books (title alone is normally sufficient; no need to reference publisher, year, etc.)
    movies and plays
    major musical compositions
    paintings, drawings, statues, and other works of art
    periodicals (journals and magazines)

    • Use quotation marks with the following:

    individual lectures
    papers (e.g., papers presented at conferences)
    radio programs**
    TV programs**

    * If of book length, italicize.
    ** If part of a continuing series, italicize (e.g., PBS’s Sesame Street, National Public Radio’s All Things Considered).

    • Do not use italics, underlining, or quotation marks (but use appropriate capitalization) with titles of the following: